Friday, September 4, 2020

Knitted fabrics Essay Example for Free

Sewn textures Essay Weft-sewing texture is produced using nonstop lengths of yarn, which is taken care of over the width of the texture by a progression of needles. Weft weaves can be unwound and if a fasten is dropped it will run down the length of the texture, so weft-sewing texture can't be cut like woven texture. This sort of sewing produces delicate, agreeable that has variable stretch, contingent upon the structure. Hand made weft sewing can be make one off fashioner items, for example, jumpers or pads modern PC controlled sewing machines delivered around 90 percent of pullover, rib and jacquard textures. Twist weaving textures are made on straight or round CAD/CAM sewing machines. Each circle of the texture is taken care of by its own different yarn, which is taken care of into the weaving zone corresponding to the texture selvedge. These circles interlock vertically, along the length of the texture. Twist weaves have some versatility, don't stepping stool and cant be unwound. In spite of the fact that they can be cut like woven textures, twist weaves have a restricted application for dress being for the most part utilized for swimwear recreation and clothing linings bands strips and trimmings they are additionally utilized for net draperies outfitting and bed material. Twist sews are primarily utilized in modern end-utilizes including geotextiles. This is the most utilized weave development, which can give perpetual structure variety however the utilization of plain, thick, and slender, extravagant and hued yarns plain weave is solid firm, and hardwearing and is utilized for some sorts of textures and end-utilizes, I. e. calico, gingham, muslin. calico is plain weave minimal effort cotton texture, made in various loads and widths, reasonable for exploratory materials work. A style fashioner will frequently utilize calico to make a model article of clothing to help in the improvement of the level example for another structure. Inside planners some of the time utilized calico adversary making low-spending outfitting. Voile is a lightweight plain weave sheer texture produced using cotton, silk, rayon, nylon or worsted. It utilized for pullovers, dresses, childrens wear, and drapes. Ripstop nylon is an elite plain weave texture in witch a portion of the twist and weft are bent over at stretches in a twist and weft. Twill weave items texture with corner to corner lines witch commonly run base left to upper right on the texture face. Weaving twills in various ways produces weave varieties, for example, herringbone or chevron. Twill weave wraps well and is one of the most utilized weave developments, making textures, for example, coat or denim. Twill is utilized for a wide scope of items, for example, coats, suit, pants and draperies. viyella is a 2/2 twill texture woven from fleece/cotton mix strands in the twist and weft. Viyella textures are 55%wool 45%cotton and can have plain, checked or striped they are utilized for items, for example, shirts dresses and childrens wear.

Sunday, August 23, 2020

Importance of English Free Essays

3 Steps to Acing Your Upcoming Group Interview You’ve been approached in for a board meet. Perhaps you’re threatened. Perhaps frightened. Possibly you’re not even sure you comprehend what that really involves. Whatever your degree of fear, here are three simple strides to traversing your board meet tranquilly and in one piece. Stage 1: BEFOREYou reserve the privilege to ask who will be on your board. Do this. At that point inquire about each board part as well as could be expected. You’ll have the option to make sense of a considerable amount and get ready better for what each may be generally quick to ask you. What does this specific gathering of individuals educate you regarding what the organization is attempting to assess?You can likewise ask to what extent (generally) the meeting should last. This will give you a nice sentiment for what amount to and fro conversation will be conceivable, how much space you’ll be given to pose inquiries, to what extent your answers can be, etc.Step 2: DURING Treat every individual on the board like an individual not simply one more anonymous face. This isn't an indifferent divider asking you inquiries. Every questioner on your board is another chance to make a human association and persuade that a lot more individuals in the organization what an extraordinary fit you would be.Be sure to observe everybody’s name as they are presented. Record every one if that causes you recall. When responding to questions, talk straightforwardly to the person who asked, yet then attempt to widen your answer out to cause the remainder of the board to feel remembered for the discussion.Step 3: AFTERYou’ve took in their names and put forth an attempt to interface with each board part presently thank every single one of them earnestly withâ solid eye to eye connection and a quality handshake. From that point forward, it’s the typical post-meet follow-up methodology. Be that as it may, recall that you have to keep in touch with one card to say thanks for each board part. It appears to be a torment, however it’s these little contacts that will help set you apart.The board talk with: 6 hints for previously, during, and after

Saturday, August 22, 2020

A Woman Of No Importance Essay

‘A Woman of No Importance’ was written in 1892 by Oscar Wilde. In the play Wilde shows the false reverence that penetrated through the nineteenth century and he communicates his perspectives on a parochial society. The piece of the play is vital in Wilde’s make as he builds up characters and establishes the frameworks of the play. The play shows how nineteenth century, high society social orders worked. Looking back, we can ponder Wilde’s utilization of recommendation as he drastically communicates his perspectives on the general public wherein he lived in. Wilde effectively presents the characters inside the composition and the subtext permits the peruser to increase a more profound comprehension of the genuine idea of the considerable number of characters. Wilde quickly presents us t the character of Lady Caroline, a lady who has been hitched multiple times herself, a characteristic that would be exceptionally objected to in the nineteenth century. Her feelings appear to resound what numerous ladies of her status may have thought about the goings on in a nineteenth century society. She is diligent in belittling Miss Worsley and takes entertainment in offending her about her American legacy. ‘I don't know Miss Worsley, that outsiders like you ought to develop likes or dislikes’. This announcement shows that Lady Caroline spots herself above Miss Worsley in the public arena, in spite of the fact that she is a Lady, and Hester has no title. Woman Caroline plainly believes that all that she says is right, as in discussion with Lord Kevil she remarks that she is ‘usually right’, despite the fact that she alludes to Lord Kelvil as Kettle, and she must be amended by her inactive spouse, Sir John. ‘You accept great of everybody Jane. It is an extraordinary fault’, in spite of the fact that this is a prudence, Lady Caroline is obviously a worrier, and her announcement is a conundrum. The announcement shows that Lady Caroline has distorted ethics and is incredibly unconscious of her own tendency. Through Wilde’s introduction of Lady Caroline we are indicated how we can't accept the surface appearance of characters in the play, developing our insight into a nineteenth century culture was really similar to. Wilde strengthens the affectation of Lady Caroline, making the feeling that her insight is simply founded on tattle. ‘It’s stated, obviously, that she fled twice before she was married’. This is an angle to Lady Caroline that is key in understanding her inclination; her self absorbed vanity makes an especially terrible impression of nineteenth century high societies, as her perspectives nearly reflect advanced famous people. Wilde depicts Hester as a glaring difference to the malevolent character of Lady Caroline; Hester has an apathetic way and talks in long, important vernacular, though Lady Caroline’s lingo is shorter and undeniably progressively forceful. Through Hester we can see Wilde’s conceivable genuine aims, as he is maybe recommending that an American culture far surpasses the British lifestyle. ‘In America those are the individuals that we regard the most’, Hester says this to Lady Caroline when she is being educated that Lady Caroline is derisive towards individuals that need to work professionally. Hester is plainly an autonomous lady, and like the Suffragette development during the nineteenth century, she speaks to the ‘new woman’; she is extremely clear about what she needs and can settle on her own choices. In the nineteenth century the Suffragettes struggled for the rights for ladies to cast a ballot and were extremely forward in their deduction, much similarly as Wilde and Orwell (1984). When Hester remarks on her considerations and sentiments towards Gerald Arbuthnot a significant number of the characters dislike her discourse, as she is breaking the cliché desires for a lady in the nineteenth century. ‘He has one of the most lovely natures I have ever come across’. Despite the fact that Hester is the most segregated and helpless, because of her being from America, the crowd appear to her like her the most out of the considerable number of characters, as she seems, by all accounts, to be the most legit and agreeable, she likewise has a clever comical inclination.

Friday, August 21, 2020

A Guide to A Research Paper Services

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Macroeconomic Objectives and their Importance to UK Economy Essay

Macroeconomic Objectives and their Importance to UK Economy - Essay Example Low Inflation The developing goals and macroeconomic structure has is relied upon to manage difficulties that originate from swelling and financial vulnerability. The expansion is the United Kingdom remained at 2.4 percent toward the start of 2013. This has been occasioned by a fall in cost of diesel and petroleum. The value appears to have briefly balanced out. The vitality costs have declined. This incorporates lodging, diversion and culture merchandise. The macroeconomic structure depends on straightforwardness, duty and responsibility. The point is to guarantee that the administration works through clear targets for financial and fiscal arrangement. The administration of UK accepts that compelled watchfulness can help in meeting long haul macroeconomic develops. Under this structure, the administration of United Kingdom is required to meet the destinations at the same time (Greener 2001). This methodology is supported by the way that a portion of the goals and corresponding and a ssociated with one another. Parity of Payment This happens when an incited parity of installment exchanges is zero. For this situation, the administration of the UK is liable for affecting the trade rates. The legislature is resolved to guarantee that the imports to not surpass the fares. This is done through dodging fixed trade rates and advancing a culture that is increasingly profitable that destructive. The administration would like to control the trade development given the trade rates is adaptable. This may keep the real from devaluing further. Adjusting is installment balance influences the holding of outside trade with influences the nearby economy. The legislature is building up a strategy that guarantees support... This article is probably the best case of examination of the primary bearings of the macroeconomic strategy, did by UK government. Macroeconomics alludes to total exercises did by government, people or the administration. Targets are the points of the arrangement being utilized by the legislature. The administration of the United Kingdom focuses on a customer record of more than 2 percent. The legislature likewise means to guarantee feasible development through keeping up low expansion and guaranteeing appropriate control on the ecological development. The UK government has a target of guaranteeing elevated levels of work through expanding open doors for full business. The administration is building up a terrific macroeconomic strategy system that characterizes the jobs of the significant economy division and how they can reinforce the seriousness of the UK economy. The areas incorporate monetary and lodging. The strategy expects to oversee utilization. After the utilization blast, the household showcase made a solid interest that caused the UK sends out not to develop as quick true to form. The State is recognizing its disappointment in having a changed approach. The arrangement by the legislature to build up a far reaching macroeconomic system states when and how the targets will be accomplished. It is conceivable to accomplish the destinations if the directing board of trustees stays adaptable and receptive to financial elements. The macroeconomic strategy system plans to utilize better measurements and genuine middle wages in surveying the monetary arrangements and targets.

Saturday, July 11, 2020

What Is A Reflective Essay?

What Is A Reflective Essay?A reflection essay is a paper that you prepare for a final examination or another writing project. Usually a student will prepare a paper to use as practice or in class, as well as write an essay on their own to prepare for the final exam. These types of essays can really help you through the tougher moments of preparation.An essay is usually based off of something that has been happened to the person writing it. There are many different ways to reflect on a particular incident in your life. Some people have trouble simply writing down what has happened. Using a reflection essay can help you be able to use a more creative way to approach a piece of writing.You can use this type of essay as a personal statement or your introduction to your essay. The questions could be on your own life and your experiences or problems. The essay could reflect on how you relate to others or how you perceive situations.When you are writing an essay on your own you will have a better idea of what the essay should say. You can also pick a topic that you think is important and talk about it in an honest and open way, but with a creative twist to help you make your point.You might want to know how you felt when your ideas were challenged by someone else's essay. You can reflect on it by writing your own essay. This is a great opportunity to review what worked and what didn't work.There are many ways to reflect on an essay, but for this one the reflection essay is used as a reflection on something that has been happening in your life. It could have been something that happened in school or at work.There are many reasons to write an essay on your own. The reflection essay is great for individuals who struggle with writing essays on their own. This type of essay can be used as an introduction to your own life or the life of a friend.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

The Specific Role Of The Quantity Surveyor - Free Essay Example

1.1 Background to the Study A competent design team is crucial for any new building project according to Lee (2008:127). The quantity surveyor can be a very valuable addition to the design team for the client, giving expert advice on contractual and financial matters. The quantity surveyor will have the clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s interest as his number one priority and his services can be of great value to any person considering constructing a new building. According to Bowles Le Roux (1992:1) any person considering building or investing in construction projects needs expert advice from a quantity surveyor. No matter the size or complexity of a project, the quantity surveyor provides valuable advice through the various stages of the project. The Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments (2006) states that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“any client who is considering building any structure of any size, changing an existing structure or investing in construction projects no matter how simple or complex, needs the expert advice of a professional quantity surveyor for establishing budgets, cash flows, cost planning, cost management and obtaining value for money.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Construction projects differ from each other and every project has its own unique challenges. Construction projects are not standard products which have been designed and mass manufactured in a controlled environment. There is a lack of a relatively stable market price. This is due to monthly payments which are made as the work proceeds, before the project reaches completion. As a result of technological, financial and economical influences the methods adopted for construction work are varied and complex and the expert advice of a quantity surveyor should be obtained before the start of any project planning. This is the main reasons why there is a need for the services of a quantity surveyor. (Bowles Le Roux, 1992:2) The ordinary member of the general public has little knowledge or experience in the construction industry. However economically active individuals who can be seen as potential clients for residential construction projects are often reluctant to utilize the services of a professional quantity surveyor. According to Lee (2008:123), a potential pitfall for the first-time homeowner is to utilize the services of a non-reputable contractor who is not affiliated to the National Home Builders Registration Council (NHBRC). Members of the general public who are not experienced in the construction industry can be subjected to un-ethical practices and this may lead to their exploitation. Due to the many problems caused by these un-ethical and non-reputable contractors to the homeowners and other property professionals, the South African government passed legislation in 2001 known as the Housing Consumers Protection Measures Act. The intention of this Act is to guard homeowners against non-reputable contractors who build to substandard quality and then refuse to be held responsible. (Lee, 2008:123) One factor which may deter people from using the services of a quantity surveyor is the professional fees. According to research done by Cruywagen and Snyman (2005) professional quantity surveying services can be rendered as affordable in South Africa. The research shows that, due to the competitiveness of the market, it has become the norm for quantity surveyors to reduce professional fees. Cruywagen and Snyman (2005), state that there is a distinct relationship between the profitability for the quantity surveyor and the value of a project. This means residential projects are not profitable as compared to big industrial developments, shopping centers etc. This may be the reason for the lack of marketing in the residential sector and why the general public is not aware of the quantity surveying profession. The purpose of this study is to identify and understand the specific role of the professional quantity surveyor in the construction industry and to explain the significant effect a quantity surveyor can have on a construction project. 1.2 Problem Statement The general public who is not involved in the construction industry is unaware of the quantity surveying profession and the functions the quantity surveyor perform and this lack of knowledge can lead to their exploitation if a quantity surveyor is not involved. 1.3 Hypothesis For the purpose of this study the following hypotheses are set out: The general public is unaware of the quantity surveying profession and the services the profession provide. Fees associated with the quantity surveyor may intimidate homeowners who are looking to complete a project with as little investment as possible, not realizing that the quantity surveyor can save you a substantial amount of money by providing you with expert advice on financial and contractual matters. 1.4 Objectives This study has four primary objectives. The objectives are to: Outline the specific role of the quantity surveyor. Realize the major effect a quantity surveyor can have on a building project Make the general public aware of the quantity surveying profession and the functions the quantity surveyor performs. To learn why the general public is reluctant to use the services of a quantity surveyor. 1.5 Methodology A qualitative research approach was follow for the purpose of this study. The researcher has conducted a comprehensive review of relevant literature on the topic. The focus has been on the quantity surveying profession and the services it provide. Personal interviews have been conducted with professional quantity surveyors. To understand the broader picture members of the general public who recently became homeowners (of newly constructed buildings) was asked to complete a questionnaire. Attention has been given to whether or not the services of a quantity surveyor was utilized and if not, why? 1.6 Delimitations The research is limited to the residential construction industry. The focus of the research is on the services of a professional quantity surveyor and not that of the contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor. Memberà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s of the general public who was approached with questionnaires was limited to those who were recently involved with the construction of a residential building. 1.7 Assumptions The researcher assumed that all data collected are accurate and all interviews and questionnaires conducted were answered truthfully. CHAPTER TWO THE QUANTITY SURVEYING PROFESSION 2.1 Introduction In this chapter all the literature on the related topic collected by the researcher will be reviewed. This review will include literature on the history of the quantity surveyor, the contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor, competencies of a professional quantity surveyor, fees of the professional quantity surveyor, estimating and cost advice as well as the use of a bill of quantities. The core focus however will be to outline the specific functions of the professional quantity surveyor. 2.2 History of the quantity surveyor According to the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (2010), the quantity surveying profession started with the turn of the nineteenth century. The first recorded use of the term Quantity surveyor was in 1859. Before then the terms à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“measurerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Custom surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? or à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? were used. At that time it was custom for the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? to work for the master builders, measuring the completed work and often submitting biased final accounts to the building owners. As a result of this behavior it became the norm for building owners to enter into a contract and invite tenders before any work commenced. According to Bowles Le Roux (1992:4), this gave rise to competition and builders tendering realized that they were spending an immense amount of time and effort measuring and calculating to arrive at a tender figure. In addition there was the added danger that the builders interpreted the architectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s drawings differently which would lead to inaccurate pricing and result in the tenders not being calculated on an uniform basis. The builders realized that a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? could be employed to act as an unbiased person to measure the quantities on their behalf. This insured that the builders tendered on the same basis whilst sharing the cost for the surveyor. Building owners were afraid of unethical practice between the builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s and the surveyor and realized it would be to their personal advantage to appoint and compensate the quantity surveyor. This is how the independent professional quantity surveyor gained consultant status. In South Africa the title à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“quantity surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? is reserved under the Quantity Surveyors Act of 1970 for the sole use by those who had acquired the obligatory qualifications and experience stipulated under the Act. Furthermore, those persons must register with the South African Council for Quantity Surveyors before they can act as consultants to the general public (ASAQS, 2010) 2.3 Contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor The main difference between a professional quantity surveyor and a contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor is that the latter is employed by the construction company and not by the client. Dent (1970:7) states that a contractor who undertakes big projects will need a quantity surveying staff. The contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s surveyor will represent the contractor and the contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s interest will be the main priority. According to Cornick and Osbon (1994:108), the contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor spends comparatively the same amount of time on cost planning, feasibility studies and tender appraisal as the professional quantity surveyor and significantly more on post-contract services but significantly less on preparing tender documentation. Project cost control is one function that requires equal efficiency by both surveyors, the contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor on behalf of the contractor and the professional quantity surveyor on behalf of the client. Cornick and Osbon (1994:109) identified seven main functions for the contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor namely: Valuation of work completed for payment from client and payment to subcontractor. Determination of change due to variation from client or designer. Preliminaries allocation. Subcontractor accounts to agree tender and actual costs. Financial reporting for quarterly account forecasts. Cost accounting for plant and material use by company. Cost accounting for labour use by the company. Clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s expectations of project cost control will increase as the clients and their cost advisers become more complex. The clients will be expecting the cost of their buildings to be reduced to match their budget. Therefore contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quantity surveyor must strive to improving their cost controlling and accounting capabilities for the construction companies that they work for. 2.4 The professional quantity surveyor According to Bowles Le Roux (1992:3) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the quantity surveyor is a professional consultant appointed by the client who wishes to invest in property development.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? It is the quantity surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s responsibility to advise the client, architect and engineer on all financial and contractual matters from the pre-tender stage right through to the completion of the project. For the quantity surveyor to accomplish this role he must develop a comprehensive understanding of the various construction methods and have a transparent understanding of the different forms of contract and sub-contract agreements available in the construction industry. The quantity surveyor must be capable of advising on the cost of alternative construction methods and costs of different materials. An analytical approach must be adopted in finding beneficial solutions in the interest of the client. The Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments (2006) states that a professional quantity surveyor will draw on extensive cost information obtained from client databases and experience from other projects for effective budget setting. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It is the quantity surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s ongoing implementation of financial discipline in the areas of budget setting, alternative design option costing, cash flow predictions, final cost forecasting, management of variations including potential areas of dispute and timeous final account settlement, etc. that allows the maximum value for money requirement to be achieved.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? 2.4.1 Standard quantity surveying services According to A Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments (2006) the standard services that can be provided by a professional quantity surveyor are: Financial viability studies and the initial budget planning prior to the detailed design to establish whether the project is feasible in terms of the clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s financial budget; Preliminary cost studies and comparing alternative designs and materials in terms of operating and maintenance costs; Monitoring the design as it evolves to ensure it stays within clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s budget; Preparing tender documentation for pricing by contractors and advising on contractual arrangements; Evaluating the submitted tenders and reporting on the suitability thereof; Negotiating the contract sums with the individual contractors; Preparing cash flow predictions; Preparing cost reports at regular intervals; Valuing construction work in progress; Preparing the final account thus determining the final cost; Settlement of the final costs with the contractor and sub-contractors. Additional specialist services that many quantity surveyors are experienced in providing are: Acting as project manager; Acting as principle agent; Consulting on property development; Valuation of buildings for insurance purposes etc.; Acting as an expert witness; Advising on the settlement of disputes through mediation and arbitration. Facilitating with fast track construction projects; Providing services for projects in engineering, mining and petro-chemical industries. It is recommended to employ the quantity surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s full services as a professional consultant rather than in a technical/measurement role in order to utilize the quantity surveyorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s expertise to the best advantage. 2.4.2 Competencies of the professional quantity surveyor Competencies can be defined as the ability a person should have in a given occupational area subject to external and internal factors like organization size, type, and age (Barret, 1992). (Holmes Joyce, 1993) defined competence as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a description of an action, a mode of behavior or outcome that a person should be able to demonstrate, or the ability to transfer skills and knowledge to new situations within the occupational area.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? In the construction industry the quantity surveyor can be seen as the economist and cost accountant, whose services facilitate the client to obtain the maximum value for the clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s investment. There are three aspects which reflect value for a client in the construction industry, namely cost, time and quantity. Quantity surveyors add value to the construction project performance by using the appropriate competencies. It is therefore important for an assessment of the quantity surveyors competencies in order to highlight the continuing relevance of their services in the construction industry (Nkado Meyer, 2001:483). The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) set out the competencies required by professional quantity surveyors in three categories, namely basic -, core and optional competencies. Table 1 below presents the competencies in three categories. Under the structure of the RICS the basic competencies are present in all construction professions, the core competencies primarily for quantity surveyors and the optional competencies are required for specialization in a specific field. Table 1: Competencies set out by the RICS (Nkado Meyer, 2001:484). A Study conducted by Nkado and Meyer (2001:484) identified 23 defined competencies which apply to quantity surveyors in South Africa. A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected members of the ASAQS of a different demographic background. The questionnaire listed the 23 competencies in alphabetical order. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of the competencies for a career as a professional quantity surveyor in South Africa at present, the importance in the future and the level of evidence of each competency in the quantity surveying profession. Rating worked on a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"not importantà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and 5 being à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"very importantà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. The researchers ensured the respondents anonymity to attain an honest response. Table 2: Competencies ratings (Nkado Meyer, 2001:487). Table 2 shows the ratings which have been converted to percentages for effective interpretation. It is interesting to note that three of the traditional core competencies are rated in the top five competencies required by quantity surveyors in South Africa at present, the three being procurement and financial management, economics of construction and construction contract practice. The results showed that management orientated competencies were rated of higher importance for future services while the highest importance for current services were technically orientated. The five most important competencies required by quantity surveyors in South Africa at present are: Computer literacy and information technology; Procurement and financial management; Economics of construction; Construction contract practice; Measurement. The five most important competencies required by quantity surveyors in South Africa in the future are: Computer literacy and information technology; Procurement and financial management; Economics of construction; Project management; Marketing. Competencies utilized by quantity surveyors with greatest efficiency in South Africa are: Measurement; Procurement and financial management; Professional practice; Construction contract practice; Economics of construction. It is evident that management orientated competencies will grow in importance and will replace the traditional technically orientated competencies as the core competencies of the quantity surveyor (Nkado Meyer,2001:490). 2.4.3 Professional quantity surveying fees The fees charged by professional quantity surveyors are proportionate with the work done for the client and according to A Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments 2006 there are 5 options available: A time charge; A percentage fee based on a tariff recommended by The South African Council for the Quantity Surveying Profession (see Table 3); An agreed percentage of the contract value; A lump-sum fee; Any other fee arranged between the quantity surveyor and the client. 2.4.3.1 Time Charges The following recommended hourly time charges for the private sector were approved by The South African Council for the Quantity Surveying Profession with effect from 1 January 2010 (SACQSP, 2010). (All rates are exclusive of VAT.) Not exceeding 5 years experience R 700-00 Exceeding 5 years and not exceeding 10 years experience R 1 250-00 Exceeding 10 years experience R 1 750-00 Specialist work R 2 190-00 2.4.3.2 Percentage fees By using table 3 a basic fee will be determined and multiplied by the appropriate percentage (Table 4, 5 6). The basic fee shall be calculated on the value for fee purposes (see table 3). Table 3: Basic fee (SACQSP, 2010) Table 4: Appropriate percentages for building work (SACQSP, 2010) Table 5: Appropriate percentages for engineering work (SACQSP, 2010) Table 6. Appropriate percentages for management services (SACQSP, 2010) Once the primary charge (table 3) is established, the amount is multiplied by the appropriate percentage. In addition to this there will be a marginal rate which would be added to the primary charge. The gross amount will be payable to the quantity surveyor as the professional fees. 2.5 Estimating and cost advice Aibinu and Pasco (2008:1258) states: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Pre-tender cost estimation (or early stage cost estimation) is the forecasting of the cost of a project during the planning and design stage.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Research done by Trost and Oberlender (2003) identified 11 factors that play a role in the precision of estimates of which the 5 most important are: Process design; Estimator team experience and cost information; Time spent on preparation of estimate; Site requirements; The current labour and bidding climate. According to Bennett, Morrison and Stevens (1981) estimating is the main function of cost planning services provided by the quantity surveyor. They conclude that cost planning is unsuccessful without decent estimating. Morrison (1984:57) states that quantity surveyors have developed different methods for estimating to deal with the large variety of projects and designs. These different methods differ in detail with some estimates being very thorough, for instance a priced bill of quantities. Other may be very simple and only entail a simple lump sum estimate. All other factors being equal, the estimateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s accuracy will increase as the detail and time spent in preparing the estimate increases. 2.5.1 Clients brief The client, architect (design team) and the quantity surveyor are the most important members in the in the project briefing process. According to research done (Bowen, Pearl, Nkado Edwards, n.d.) it is vital to have an efficient client brief if the client is to reach his objectives with regard to the time, cost and quality of the project. Insufficient briefing of the design team by the client can lead to major frustration and unhappiness for the client. The brief procedure is the process where the client explains and spells out the objectives and requirements of a project (Bowen et al., n.d.). Bowen (1993) states that: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The purpose of this stage is for the clients to communicate to the design team and specialist consultants their needs and objectives in initiating the project.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? For the client to be satisfied, the design of the building must fulfill the clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s needs with regards to the technical aspects and quality standards. In addition to this the project must be completed within the budget and on time (Seymour Louw, 1990). In order to achieve this, a detailed and complete client brief is necessary to eliminate as many uncertainties as possible. 2.5.2 Feasibility studies After the briefing process, the quantity surveyor will do a feasibility study. The outcome of the feasibility study helps the client to decide whether to go ahead with the project. A feasibility study is conducted to ascertain whether a project idea is economically viable (Hofstrand Clause, n.d.). It is the quantity surveyors responsibility to make recommendations to the client on the viability of the project and give professional advice on any alternatives. The feasibility study involves economical and technical investigations that allow the client to decide whether to proceed with the project (Association of South African Quantity Surveyors, 2010). According to Hofstrand Clause (n.d.) a feasibility study: Identifies alternatives. Identifies reasons not to proceed. Indicate new opportunities. Gives quality information for better decision making. Assist in acquiring funding from banks and other investors. 2.6 Use of bill of quantities After the quantity surveyor completes the elemental estimate the client will decide whether the project will go ahead or not. This decision is largely based on whether the estimate is within the clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s budget or not. If the estimate is within budget the client should instruct the architect to prepare detailed working drawings for construction. The quantity surveyor can start with the preparation of the bill of quantities once he has received these drawings (Bowles Le Roux, 1992). Davis, Love and Baccarini (2009:99) states that the bill of quantities has 2 main uses and these can be categorized under pre-contract and post-contract stage. In the pre-contract stage the bill of quantities aid contractors to prepare their tenders. In the post-contract stage the bill of quantities assists the quantity surveyor and the contractor in the valuation of the work in progress and work completed for payment purposes. The bill of quantities is mainly used for tendering purposes. It enables contractors to prepare tenders using the same information which will lead to more accurate tender sums. The bill of quantities allow for a common basis on which the tenders can be compared. This brings about a competitive market (Kodikara, Thorpe McCaffer, 1993:261). According to Bowles and Le Roux (1992) the bill of quantities describes the nature of the building. It is a document which lists all the items that need to be completed for the construction of the building. These items required for the completion of the building is measured from drawings and specifications received from the architect and engineers. The total cost for the project will be the sum of all the individual items added together. When these items are priced there must be an allowance for the execution of each item as well as a realistic profit margin. The information in the bill of quantities can be classified into three fundamental categories namely; preliminaries, preambles and bills. The preliminaries of a contract entail all requirements of the project which do not have a direct impact on the construction works. The preliminaries of a contract may include health and safety requirements, access to and from site, accommodation for workforce, insurances required etc. Preambles define the standards of workmanship and materials to be used. The bills contain the measured items needed to complete the works and comprises of the description, units and quantities (Kodikara et al., 1993:261). The bill of quantities, detailed construction drawings, engineering drawings and specifications will be issued to building contractors. These documents form part of the tender documentation. The tender documents enable contractors to submit a competitive tender for a project and aid them in determining an accurate price for the completion of the building. A practical time limit is set for the contractors to price the bill. All tenders should be handed in before the specified closing date. According to Davis et al. (2009:103), the bill of quantities has various advantages to the parties involved in a project: Pre-contract stage: Database à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It provides a cost database for future estimating Fee calculation à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It provides a conclusive basis for the calculation of professional fees Asset management à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It provide data for asset management of finished building, insurance, maintenance schedules etc. Taxation à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Provide basis for precise preparation of depreciation schedules as part of the asset management plan. Post-contract stage: Accurate progress payments à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It becomes a basis from which the interim payments can be evaluated. This insures work is done at a reasonable price and gives the contractor and client peace of mind that the contractor is not paid too much or too little for work completed. Pricing of contract instructions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It provides a basis for the valuation of variations to the project. Risk management à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Prices from the contractor in the bill of quantities can be compared with current market related prices. According to Davis et al. (2009:103), the major disadvantages of the bill of quantities are that the preparation is time consuming and it tends to increase cost. 2.7 Conclusion It is clear from the above that the quantity surveyor can be a very valuable addition to the clientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s professional team. Quantity surveyors in South Africa are competent professionals. From the inception stage of a project, right through to the final payment, the quantity surveyor will give expert advice on financial and contractual matters. The successful completion of a project can never be guaranteed due to the many uncontrollable factors in the construction industry. However having the services of a quantity surveyor at your disposal will greatly improve the chances of completing a project successfully and within budget. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Data In this chapter the data collection methods and the analysis of the data is explained. For the purpose of this study a qualitative research methodology was followed in order to test the hypotheses put forward. The research was conducted by way of a comprehensive literature review and collecting data through interviews and questionnaires. The research problem is mainly that the general public is unaware of the quantity surveying profession therefore data relating to the services that the quantity surveyor offer and the profession in general were required. 3.2 Collection of data Books and journals on the related topic from local and international sources were used for the collection of data. All the data was collected before the field work started and was done over a two month period. Furthermore, primary data was collected through personal interviews and questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with quantity surveyors. The interviews were informal but due to the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s relative lack of experience in conducting interviews the questions were well prepared. Questionnaires were used to obtain the necessary data from members of the general public who were recently involved in the construction of a residential building. The questionnaires consisted out of open ended questions and were administered in person. To maximize to accuracy of the response the questions were short and in unambiguous language (Leedy Ormrod, 2005:190). To insure the validity of the research an honest response is required. For this reason the names of individuals and the quantity surveying company approached for the research will be held confidential. 3.3 Data analysis The qualitative data was organized, summarized and analyzed by the researcher in order to reach a conclusion and make recommendations. It should be noted that the sample is very small, but for the purpose of this study it is sufficient for the researcher to understand the problem at hand and reach a conclusion. CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction Primary data was collected through interviews and questionnaires as explained in the previous chapter. Ten individuals who were recently involved in a residential project were approached to complete the questionnaire. This chapter will discus the findings of the questionnaire and will incorporate the data collected from interviews with quantity surveyors. 4.1.1 Awareness of the quantity surveying profession Figure 4.1 Indicate the awareness of the quantity surveying profession. It was found that the large majority of the respondents were aware of the profession. However this does not necessarily mean they understand what the profession entails. An interesting observation was that the respondent, who was not aware of the quantity surveying profession, was the only respondent under 30 years of age. 4.1.2 Understanding of the quantity surveyor The question was what the understanding of quantity surveyors was by the respondents. Three of the ten respondents had reasonable accurate explanations. According to the respondents the quantity surveyor is responsible for the financial aspects of a project. This include preparing estimates, giving cost advice on the design of building to ensure design remains within the clients budget, valuing of completed construction work, preparing cost reports and assisting with the settlement of the final account. It should be noted that two of the three respondents had utilized the services of a quantity surveyor when they were building their houses. Four respondents had a reasonable understanding of the quantity surveying profession but have never been involved in a project were a quantity surveyor was present. Two respondents had a very vague idea of the profession with one commenting à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“they count bricksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. Figure 4.2 illustrate the understanding of profession by respondents Although nine out of ten indicated they are aware of the profession only tree could give an accurate description of the profession. 4.1.3 Employment of quantity surveyors Only two form the ten respondents utilized the services of a quantity surveyor. In this sample that amounts to 20%. Considering the respondentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s relative lack of experience and knowledge of the construction industry this is a very low percentage. 4.1.3.1 Do you think the quantity surveyor was advantageous to the project? This question was put forward to the respondents who made use of a quantity surveyor. The two individuals who made use of a quantity surveyor had very positive feed back. In the interest of confidentiality the two projects which had quantity surveyors involved, will be referred to as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"project Aà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"project Bà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Project A was a large up market house with a contract sum of R 11 million. The client initially did not want to invest more than R 10 million. After receiving the design from the architect the quantity surveyor estimated the project will amount to R 13 million. The client received very valuable cost advice from the quantity surveyor and was able to reduce this amount R 11 million. In this case the client was able to save a substantial amount of money thanks to expert advice from a quantity surveyor. Project B was a smaller residential house with a contract sum of R 6.5 million. With the commencement of the construction work the contractor had unforeseen difficulties with excavating hard rock in the foundations. This had cost and time implications. When the quantity surveyor prepared the estimate for the building he allowed for unforeseen factors in a contingency amount. This contingency amount was able to absorb the added costs incurred due the additional work in the foundations and time delay. Although the professional fees for a quantity surveyor are expensive and may deter individuals from employing a quantity surveyor, it is likely to save the individual money. In both of the above cases the quantity surveyor was able to save the client money which exceeded the value of the professional fees the quantity surveyor received. The one respondent also noted that the valuations prepared by the quantity surveyor gave him peace of mind that he was not paying the contractor too much for work completed. 4.1.3.2 Why respondents did not make use of a quantity surveyor Figure 4.3 illustrates why respondents did not utilized a quantity surveyor. This figure illustrates that although the majority of the respondents where aware of the profession, they were unaware of the benefits of the quantity surveyor. 4.1.4 Completion of project within budget. According to data from the questionnaires only four from the ten respondents indicated that their respective projects finished within budget. Two of these made use of the services of a quantity surveyor. This means only two from eight projects without a quantity surveyor finished within budget. That amounts to only 25% in this sample. 4.2 Quantity surveyors perspective CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUTION 6. REFERENCES Association of South African Quantity Surveyors, 2010. 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